In 2017, the California Legislature, in an attempt to protect California State Senator Josh Newman from being recalled, changed the recall rules. This attempt to thwart the Constitutional rights of Californians is analogous to southern legislators passing poll taxes and literacy tests to thwart the Constitutional rights of black Americans.

In 1870, the 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution was enacted. The 15th Amendment guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race or color.

Southern states did not want black Americans swinging the balance of power. In order to maintain their power, southern legislatures passed laws that had a discriminatory effect. Poll taxes and literacy tests are some of the more famous gimmicks that the southern legislators used to deprive black Americans of their Constitutional right to vote. These laws ensured that very few black Americans were able to vote. These laws enabled legislators to maintain their power.

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